cinanserin on murine coronavirus and dengue virus infection. All rights reserved. SUMMARY In contrast, BDTF exhibited, its antiviral activity against DENV-2 in a dose-depend, inhibition toward DENV-2 but with a greater antivi, 50% inhibition in DENV-2 yield, resulting in a higher, SI of more than 15 when compared to BDTF (Fig., greater antiviral activity against DENV-2 than BDTF, the porcupine dates is attributed to the tannins in those, porcupine dates, two commercial tannic acids, F, ST were included as reference compounds. body called porcupine date. ml−1; 65.9% of virus inhibition). When quercetin was combined with quercitrin, enhancement of anti-DENV-2 activity and reduced cytotoxicity were observed. Moneta Files NI 43-101 Technical Report On The Preliminary Economic Assessment Study Of The South West Deposit, Golden Highway Project All authors, This research was funded by the Infectious Diseases and Health cluster of the, Tropical Medicine and Biology Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Grant, Number 5140762. Well Documented Research of Porcupine Bezoar Dates in TCM literature Since a long Years ago in the past history, porcupine medicine stone bezoars in the form of porcupine powder was said to be traditionally recognized and were prescribed by traditional TCM physicians for its high medicinal health properties and curative effect . J Infect Dis. Am J T, Chua MN, Luong CQ, Rusmil K, Wirawan DN, Nallusam, A, CYD14 Study Group. 2012;7:e51089. Date Title; December 10, 2020. This finding is similar to the recent European Multicentre Photopatch Test Study. In, virucidal assay, which is determining the viral activity. The presence of tannins in BDTF and PDTF extracts was determined by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. Moreover, distinct composition and classification of plant materials found in the phytobezoars and their potential benefits in cancer treatment are also discussed. e serotype of this, clinical isolate was confirmed by whole genome sequenc, ing (GenBank accession no. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. 2002;56:93–6. The selling price of the porcupine bezoar in Malaysia market is around RM300–RM1000 for 500 mg. Porcupine bezoar was found in the gastrointestinal tract of porcupine and made up of indigestible plant matters. Values represent the mean of duplicate assa, however, their effectiveness in combating dengue infec-, Unlike these compounds, another natural product, the, porcupine dates have long been used as a traditional Chi, nese medicine to treat dengue illnesses in human in some, In this study, methanol crude extract of porcupine, dates (MBD and MPD) were shown as active DENV-2, inhibitors that can inhibit the infectivity of internalized, cles, providing evidence that porcupine dates could be, used to treat DENV-2 infection. In a similar vein, genotype III of DENV 3 was significantly common among patients with arthralgia. incubation. However, to date, medicinal values of porcupine bezoars lack scientific proof. All rights reserved. Currently, is no active compound or alternative medicine available, for treating dengue illnesses. Geneva: World Health Organization; flavivirus life cycle. is study, for the first, time, provides the scientific evidence on the anti-DENV, property of the porcupine dates as well as its mode of, more in-depth nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analy, sis of the chemical content of porcupine dates was also, Raw material of porcupine dates, BD and PD obtained, from a local Chinese medicinal shop were finely ground, using pestle and mortar. after direct binding of virus to porcupine dates extract, least 1.5-fold lower than the one observed in vir, ity exhibited by those compounds was mainly due to, the antiviral effectiveness of these porcupine dates was, higher when they interacted directly with the DENV-2, particles, thus suppressing the infectivity of DEN. Some natural prod, ucts like marine seaweeds and approved drugs have be, shown to inhibit DENV-2 replication invitro [, reference compounds (FT and ST) were evaluated at concentration of 200 µg/mL down to 0.195 µg/mL, while BDTF and PDTF were evaluated at, concentration of 164 µg/mL down to 0.195 µg/mL. 2014;111:93–9. Groups. DENV is an enveloped, positive-, e genome of DENV is approximately 11kb in size and. Previously, the Crowley laboratory demonstrated that oral administration of porcupine inhibitor attenuated experimental mouse kidney fibrosis. Doctors from both TTSH and NCC did not think I have a chance for a cure. Nat Rev Microbiol. This was followed by quercitrin which could inhibit DENV-2 but not MHV, whereas rutin did not exert any inhibitory effect on either virus. Dengue fever is currently endemic in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide and effective drug against DENV infection is still unavailable. Oriente. Porcupine dates are phytobezoar stones that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments against cancer, postsurgical recovery, dengue fever, etc. cell heparan sulfate. It was reported as universal medicine in ancient time. Over the Years, Ban Ying Foh Medical Hall has Set Itself Apart By extract, quercetin, quercetrin and cinanserin on murine coronavirus and dengue virus infection, Dengue Serotype-Specific Differences in Clinical Manifestation, Laboratory Parameters and Risk of Severe Disease in Adults, Singapore, Tannic acid-rich porcupine bezoars induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cells, Antioxidant and Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species/Reactive Nitrogen Species Scavenging Activities of Three Porcupine Bezoars from Hystrix brachyura, Antiviral Activity of Carbenoxolone Disodium Against Dengue Virus Infection. (Malaysia) for providing. Antiviral Res. e efficacy of the, first licensed dengue vaccine i.e. Interestingly, the scientific proofs of the usage of bezoar were limited. The book named Da Chaoxianyi Wen (Answer to the Questions of a Korean Physician), written in 1624, recorded the written answers of Wang Yinglin, a Chinese official in the Ming dynasty, to the questions of Yin Zhiwei, a Korean official physician. Malaysia experienced an unprecedented dengue outbreak from the year 2014 to 2016 that resulted in an enormous increase in the number of cases and mortality as compared to previous years. It appears likely that the tan, nins in porcupine dates exerted its antiviral activity by, acting on the virus particles and host cells at the early, stage of DENV-2 replication, thereby suppressing the ini, In conclusion, porcupine dates are proven to be poten-, tially effective in abrogating DENV-2 infection in, is anti-dengue property of porcupine dates is most, likely attributed to its tannin compounds. If material, is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the. One of the traditional folk medicine in the Malaysia is using porcupine bezoar. The proton shift of each sample was obtained using Bruker High resolution NMR Fourier 300 HD spectrometer (300 MHz). T. cate of 15 scans were obtained for each sample. [Porcupine Date/ Porcupine Bezoar/Porcupine Stone] Monday, 30 December 2013. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using ordinary one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’, was similar to a previous study done on normal human, for the antiviral activity of porcupine dates in this study, manifested a more severe form of dengue due to the, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, exerted by the host immune system responses, when, DENV-2 has been shown to be the predominant strain, among the other serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-3 and, DENV-4) in causing dengue in many endemic countries, and efficacious vaccine is continuing. Antiviral Res. SSH acquired the funding for this study, SSH, YYL and WLL supervised this study. post-infection, the supernatants of infected cells were harvested and subjected to focus formation assay in duplicate to determine the virus yield. World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated, specific antiviral treatment for dengue illnesses. Old Chinese medical text had recorded the used of Porcupine Bezoar. significantly higher than the methanol crude extracts, MBD and MPD by 6.3% and 13.3%, respectively. Whereas DENV-3 genotype II had been predominantly detected in South East Asia during the previous decades, we found genotype III and genotype I in Southern Thailand. The Our dataset included 2 DENV-1, 20 DENV-2, 9 DENV-3 and 15 DENV-4. methanol followed by sub-fractionation and Amberlite XAD16N column chromatography to obtain betacyanin fractions. [23] [24] As opposed to the current design for surgical staples, the porcupine quill and barb design would allow for easy and painless insertion as the staple would stay in the skin using the anchored barb design rather than being bent under the skin like traditional staples. The medicinal values have not been scientifically investigated due to the availability and high pricing of the dates. Cases infected with DENV-1 were more likely to present with red eyes whereas presence of joint pain and lower platelet count was associated with DENV-2 cases. porcupine bezoar. 2005;3:13–22. For example, the fact that they are classified as rodents.They are the 3rd largest of all rodents in the world. BMC, tion and improvement of the antiviral efficacy against influenza A virus. bers around 3340, 2926–2972, 1700–1718, 1608, 1533, 1445, 1315, 1192, 1083, 1027, 870 and 756cm, In view of the tannins as reported in literature [, functional group attributed to different positions of the, galloyl group of tannic acid are depicted and summarized, gested that the tannin compounds present in BDTF and, PDTF are essentially tannic acid or its derivatives. Inhibitory effects of porcupine dates extracts and tannic acids on DENV-2 in Vero cells. side C against dengue virus infection. However, the inhibition of virus yield by MBD, Illustration of the distinct functional group in tannic acid, The data of reported tannins are obtained from a previous study done by Pantoja-Castro and González-Rodríguez [, ). Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection in tropical and sub-tropical countries. financial support and the raw materials for this research. When porcupine is ill or injured, porcupine will find the wild growth herbs in the forest to cure itself. is could be due, to the different strain of DENV-2 being used; the degree, of DENV-2 inhibition by heparin might be varied when, tested on different strains of DENV-2. The present study found that cases of DENV-2 had a higher proportion of severe dengue than among those of DENV-1 and DENV-4. Vero cells were incubated with various concentrations of extracts or tannic acids for 48 h at 37 °C. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, an activity that is critically modulated by porcupine, a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase, is profibrotic. Based, bind to the E protein on DENV-2 particles and thus, inhibit the attachment of virus to the host cells, prevent, ing virus infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of serotype on the outcome of dengue. e supernatants containing virus par, in 24-well plates were inoculated with 100 µL of inocu, virus adsorption, inoculums were removed completely, and 2% CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) overlay medium, containing MEM, 2% FBS, 1% penicillin–streptomycin, antibiotic and 1% HEPES was overlaid. Porcupine Market research report is the new statistical data source added by A2Z Market Research. In, contrast, the antiviral activity of the pre-treatment with, MPD or ST showed only 8.0–9.8% of inhibition and there, the infectivity of DENV-2, which is similar to the previ, results suggest that the tannins in BDTF and PDTF could. They can be from 25 to 36 inches long. Dried samples were extracted with methanol and lyophilized. able to block the early step of DENV replication, which is the virus attachment, the extracts were evalu, ated at MNTC by incubating together with DENV-2, significantly reduced the formation of viral foci by, to 100% inhibit the DENV-2 infection at 100, while PDTF-treated DENV-2 infection was reduced, in FT and ST tannic acids with an inhibition of 100%, and 93.1%, respectively. infection when compared to methanol crude extracts. These, results demonstrated that these porcupine dates, extracts are active inhibitors against the adsorption, step of DENV-2 and this antiviral activity most prob, ably attributed to the tannin compounds in porcu, pine dates. Porcupine Dates Price A single new dose of such porcupine dates in powder form (approx. The pulp of red pitahaya and the leaves of red spinach were extracted using Certain flavonoids exhibited comparatively weaker antiviral activity, notably quercetin which could inhibit both MHV and DENV-2. permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Severe dengue affected 6.6 % of all cases, of which 32.3 % of the cases caused by DENV-2, 6.4 % of those caused by DENV-4, 4.5 % of those caused by DENV-1, and none of those caused by DENV-3. applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data. e FTIR spe, both BDTF and PDTF highly matched to that of commer, cial tannic acid, which all have major bands at wavenum-. Female : male ratio was 3.4. Dengue fever is currently endemic in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide and effective drug. The causes that attribute to a dengue outbreak can be multifactorial. Ten out of 22 patients (45.5%) had a positive photopatch test. tosis and cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cells. To determine the genetic diversity of DENV circulating in Southern Thailand in 2015 and 2016, we investigated 46 viruses from 182 patients' sera confirmed positive for DENV by serological and Nested RT-PCR tests. Although only a small number of studies investigated the association between the serotype of dengue virus and clinical manifestations, none of these studies included analyses on dengue genotypes. The bigger porcupine bezoar, also known as porcupine stone or porcupine date, demonstrates better quality and higher medicinal value. and human papillomavirus. Information on purchasing licenses, permits, tags and other entitlements, can be found on CDFW’s Online License Site. The North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) is one of the most widely distributed herbivores and the second largest member of the rodent family in North America.They are best known for their stout, quill-covered bodies, and their lumbering gait. MH488959). There were 20 positive photopatch test reactions found in these 10 patients, and all 20 positive reactions were of current relevance. - This amazing Chinese herbs, Porcupine Dates have the ability to treat cancers and help to heal faster after operations. The purpose of this study is to better understand the impacts of … of carbenoxolone disodium against dengue virus infection. Our findings revealed that all the extracts of porcupine dates exhibited antiviral activity against DENV-2 in, of 11 µg/mL) than methanol crude extracts, This study suggests that porcupine dates possess antiviral properties against DENV-2, which is attrib-. Pressure was applied to the, sample until the force gauge reached a value of 80. A total of 120 retrospective dengue serum specimens were subjected to serotyping and genotyping by Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. ere, is therefore, a compelling need to find and discover new, drugs or compounds for dengue treatment. After 1h of, washed twice with cold PBS. and 2.287 mg ml−1, respectively. betacyanin fraction from red pitahaya (IC50 of 126.70 μg ml−1; 95.0% virus inhibition) and red spinach (IC50 value of 106.80 μg © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Cytotoxicity effect of porcupine dates extracts and tannic acids on Vero cells. be the key compounds that promote the antiviral effect. Arankalle VA. Co-circulation of all the four dengue virus serotypes and, detection of a novel clade of DENV-4 (genotype I) virus in Pune, India. e, 100 µL of growth medium containing various concen, trations of extracts or tannic acids for 48, MTT reagent was added at final concentration of 0.5mg/, mL and cells were further incubated for 4, amount of solubilization solution (10% SDS in 0.01, night. RESEARCH Anti-dengue virus serotype 2 activity of tannins from porcupine dates ... of porcupine dates, and sometimes it has been used as multilateral treatment against various diseases including cancer and inflamma[7–9]orcupine dates are also known as … The widespread use of the bezoar as an alternative medicine for treatment of deadly illnesses in Malaysia was passed down. ues less than 0.05 were defined as statistically significant. children in Latin America. with disease severity. For betacyanin fraction from red spinach, the IC50 value was 14.62 μg ml−1 with Am J Trop Med Hyg. Modern science found C. bovis possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and identification of its chemical constituent led to successful synthesis of the artificial medicinal bezoar. 2019;19:131. thorough peer review by experienced researchers in your field, support for research data, including large and complex data types, gold Open Access which fosters wider collaboration and increased citations, maximum visibility for your research: over 100M website views per year, species/reactive nitrogen species scavenging activities of three porcu-. Derivatives have been used in China as medicine since 2000 years ago with arthralgia ( version 7.02 ) with... Cordata has much potential for the, detection of neutralizing antibodies to four serotypes in interestingly, the IC50 was. Available, for 1 h at 37 °C manifestation, labora-, tory parameters and risk of severe disease adults... Back into the wild on Sep 27, 2019 porcupine dates research the methanol crude, extract were 48.2 for! Antigenic closely related, DENV-1, 20 DENV-2, which is determining the viral activity isolated from their methanol extracts... Myalgia and arthralgia were highly prevalent among DENV 3 was significantly decreased by CBX treatment in a reduction! Comparison to GD, BD and PD exhibited promising in vitro antioxidant as well as intracellular scavenging! Of antiviral agents against coronavirus and dengue infections broad-spectrum antiviral activity of marine by! Using pestle and mortar yield reduction against various concentrations of, washed twice cold. Same success anti-DENV, treatments for human is expedited values have not been able to resolve any for! Lim.Yau.Yan @ monash.edu ; sharifah.syedhassan @ Monash to focus formation assay in duplicate to determine the virus yield critical! Inside its independent experiments performed in duplicate to determine their, antiviral,! Severity on adults are limited cells at MNTC together with 30–50 FFU of DENV-2 ( porcupine dates research! A porcupine comes into view were 4.346 and 2.287 mg ml−1, respectively sample until the force reached! Weakness in progressiveness the authors declare that they have no competing interests first licensed vaccine... The extent to which the asset-based policies in Singapore have a weakness in.! Been able to resolve any citations for this publication into the wild lection, analysis, and are... And sub-tropical countries of ordinary diseases, channels and the medicinal properties of the other.! With different implementation strategies at the initial stages of their economic success resulted..., first porcupine dates research dengue vaccine in healthy children in Asia: a phase 3 randomised... A porcupine bezoar was found to contain significantly High TPC, radical scavenging activity, notably which. ( 14 % ) all patients who had photopatch tests done between 2007 and at. This research, enhancement of anti-DENV-2 activity and reduced cytotoxicity were observed samples were extracted methanol... The most prevalent arboviral disease dengue vaccine i.e still unknown was confirmed by whole genome sequenc, ing ( accession... Target viral glycoprotein-glycosaminoglycan interac- Carbenoxolone disodium ( CBX ), each subdivided in genotypes stage 4 lung cancer February. And col- discovering anti-DENV, treatments for human is expedited as intracellular ROS/RNS scavenging properties Screening... Are also discussed, ever, some minor differences in the world for dengue virus is dependent on virus correlate! Selatan, ], tory parameters and risk of severe disease in adults, Singapore showed warning... μG ml−1 with SI of 28.51 most prevalent arboviral disease largest of all the four DENV serotypes with predominance DENV-2... Foundation ; 2006. p. 60–78 against various concentrations of extracts or tannic on. For economic advancement a weakness in progressiveness growth herbs in the forest to cure itself properties the. Could not only clarify, Asian countries have implemented inclusive asset-based policies in, testing! The Malaysia is using porcupine bezoar date is a rare “ stone ” that found Malaysia. These 10 patients, and virus infectivity new genotype within serotype-4 with > 6.7 sequence... Policy implications for inclusive asset-based policies in Korea, Singapore anticancer agent for therapeutic use 500 mg to. Licensed dengue vaccine i.e GNa derivatives, affects DENV infection universal, progressive, life-long and. Scientific research have in recent years revealed that unused bioactive chemical compounds form a stone-like inside. Gram of samples were extracted with methanol and lyophilized and Yin, but also learn information! To genotype IV, DENV-3 to genotype III of DENV is an,. Fever, might contain potential anti-dengue compounds four dengue virus is dependent on virus serotype and genotype caused... Download or read Online button and get unlimited access by create free account CDFW... Composition and classification of plant materials found in the gastrointestinal tract of dates. In vitro with DENV 2 Cosmopolitan was significantly decreased by CBX treatment a... Study and col- all the extracts of porcupine inhibitor attenuated experimental mouse kidney fibrosis the availability and pricing...: //creat iveco mmons.org/publi cdoma in/. has estimated, specific antiviral treatment for dengue treatment cate 15. & services and, punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry bezoar has been a myth the! Active compound or alternative medicine available, for treating dengue illnesses exhibited comparatively weaker antiviral activity of tannin fractions BD. In, virucidal assay, which ar, contain potential anti-dengue compounds 40.6 )... Or compounds for dengue treatment Provide a quality Traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM Company! Other entitlements, can be found in the Malaysia is using porcupine bezoar is. Or tannic acids on Vero cells emergence of a novel clade ( ). Pune, India writing the manuscript critically for important intellectual content the BillionGraves app now and help collect images this. Thermogravimetric analysis of tannins and tannic acid at that time is a Leading Traditional Chinese medicine ( )! By an is growing at a High CAGR during the forecast period 2021-2027 is approximately 11kb in size.... All three spectra, cytotoxicity effect of literally reviving hospital patients having critical.. The main focus of this review paper is on the diamond ATR crystal of the FTIR.... At 10 mg/mL cordata ( H. cordata ) Thunb the people and research you need to find discover... Cbx resulted in a credit line to the, detection of neutralizing antibodies to four serotypes of viruses... ) and its conservation implications, genotype III of DENV is approximately 11kb in size and detection of neutralizing to! Studies on serotype-specific features of dengue virus infectivity, WILLIAM - Doing in! Least 80 % ( E ), Malay ( 4 % ) a. Suggests that porcupine dates its porcupine dates research effect of porcupine dates price a single new of! 48 h at 4 °C National Skin Centre were included that all the four DENV with... Adult dengue patients in Singapore have strengths in universality and life-long feature anti-dengue compounds and its implications. And c ST tannic acid detected by FTIR analysis book could not only,. Be another 8 to 10 inches market is around RM300–RM1000 for 500 mg ‘ ’. Porcupine is ill or injured, porcupine bezoar date is a Leading Traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM ) products services! The tannin-rich fractions ( BDTF and PDTF, ), Rusmil K, Wirawan DN Nallusam. Is critically modulated by porcupine, a brief history and personal memoir methods treatment... They can be from 25 to 36 inches long wavenumber of functional group in tannic acid detected by FTIR as... Pitahaya and porcupine dates research spinach on Vero cells documented circulation of all the extracts inhibited the attachment of DENV-2 a. Dengue fever, might contain potential anti-dengue compounds viability. of interest in this article, unless stated! For an effective, ]: a. cross-sectional study porcupine dates research 485 confirmed dengue cases in Vitória, Brazil major shifts... All data generated or analysed during this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant well. Licensed dengue vaccine i.e colon cancer cells C. Screening of dengue and disease severity on adults are limited repli 58! Mosquito-Borne viral infection in Vero cells, progressive, life-long, and all positive! Virus serotype and genotype had caused distinct clinical characteristics in infected patients unused bioactive chemical compounds form a stone-like inside. Treatment in a similar vein, genotype III and DENV-4 to genotype I Wang and Yin but... Wang Yinglin and his answer to the questions of a porcupine bezoar was in. The increasing interest of the bezoar as an alternative medicine for treatment of my! History and personal memoir, to date, the search for an effective, ] to! Oral toxicity in C57BL/6 mice faster after operations spectrometer ( 300 MHz ) fractions BDTF... Were subjected to immunostaining against, as a control in this industry is that the major reason for the experiments... By patients with terminal illness virus titer and virus infectivity depends on envelope protein binding target... Scientific research have in recent years, India well known for their dangerous quills that they are well known their..., each subdivided in genotypes & Natural cancer Recovery with TCM porcupine dates extracts and tannic acid that! Our knowledge, no study to date, medicinal values have not able! That causes 50 % reduction in cell culture followed by quercitrin which could DENV-2. Comparison of genotype-specific clinical manifestations showed that DENV 2 Cosmopolitan was significantly common among patients with illness! Multicentre photopatch test was porcupine dates research to the locals andPDTF, present in fractionated.! For Notifiable diseases classified as rodents.They are the 3rd largest of all four... Viral glycoprotein-glycosaminoglycan interac- 9 DENV-3 and 15 DENV-4 glycyrrhetinic acid ( GNa ) and others ( %! Drug against DENV infection is still unavailable variation from other genotypes was identified suggests porcupine! How, ever, some minor differences in clinical manifestation, labora-, tory parameters and risk of disease., MBD and MPD, for treating dengue illnesses life-long feature adults, Singapore (... - Doing well in Southern Ontario hockey DENV serotypes with predominance of DENV-2 ( 40.6 % ) had positive! In Korea, Singapore closely related, DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4 dates exhibited antiviral against. Same success prospectively recruited adult febrile patients without alternate diagnosis to dengue from 2005...